Dynamic Characterization, Flow Modeling, and Hierarchical Control of an Energy-Harvesting Underwater Kite in Realistic Ocean Conditions
Keywords:Marine Hydrokinetic Energy, Hierarchical Control, Energy-Harvesting Kites, Ocean Current Modeling
This paper presents a hierarchical control framework for a
kite-based marine hydrokinetic (MHK) system, along with a detailed characterization of the dynamic and energetic performance of the system under realistic flow conditions. The underwater kite, which is designed to be deployed off of an offshore floating platform, features a closed-loop controller that executes power-augmenting, cyclic cross-current flight. The robustness of the kite's undersea flight control algorithm is demonstrated in a realistic four-dimensional flow model (which captures both low-and high-frequency spatiotemporal variations in the current) that accounts for turbulence and wave effects, which is coupled with a detailed dynamic model that captures the six-degree-of-freedom kite and floating platform dynamics, in addition to the tether dynamics. Using data obtained by the Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) 192 Oregon Inlet buoy , wave data from the Wave Information Studies Hindcast model , and a spectral turbulence model developed at Florida Atlantic University, we demonstrate the robustness of the kite's control system and the sensitivity of both average net power output and peak-to-average power to wave parameters. In common wave conditions, the average and net power output are shown to be highly robust to the peak period and significant wave height. In extreme wave conditions, the peak-to-average power ratio is shown to be highly positively correlated with an effective wave energy density metric, which characterizes the wave energy density presented to the kite system based on a weighted distribution along depth of the kite.
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Copyright (c) 2023 James Christopher Reed, Michael Muglia, Mitchell Cobb, Chris Vermillion
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